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- Acidity, fixed
- A wine’s acidity relative to the sum of fixed organic and mineral acids that are to be found in its composition.
- Acidity, total
- Refers to the total degree of acidity of a wine, calculated by adding the volatile acidity to the fixed acidity. Acidity is closely related to the...
- Acidity, volatile
- The concentration of free acids in a wine. If the volatile acidity is high, it has a negative effect on the wine’s quality.
- The flavour and aroma that remains in the mouth after swallowing the wine.
- Process through which wines are aged and mature, whether in the bottle or in oak casks.
- Ageing facility
- Place in the winery reserved for ageing wines. The space contains casks and bottle racks where the wine is aged.
- Alcohol content
- This is the proof of a wine and indicates the percentage of alcohol contained in it. When a wine says 11º it means that it has 11 % alcohol content.
- American vine
- A variety of wild vine whose rootstock is used for grafting the European vine so that it resists attack by phylloxera.
- Phenolic pigments found mainly in red grape varieties which determine the colour of the grape.
- Chemically these are potassium bitartrate crystals that form when a glass bottle is kept at low temperatures. A bottle containing bitartrates does...
- Bottle rack
- Cupboards or structures made of iron, wood or other materials, where bottles of wine are stored for ageing.
- Bottling facility
- Specific place in the winery where the finished wine is bottled, either for commercialisation or for further bottle ageing.
- Refers to aromas that arise from the wine’s ageing process, therefore young wines will never have bouquet.
- Stage in the vine’s life cycle when the leaves sprout. Also called foliation.
- This is a barrel, preferably made of oak, used in the process of ageing wines. The cask usually used is the Bordeaux-type, with a capacity of 225...
- The part of the winery where wines from very old vintages are stored. It is usually underground and the space reserved is usually small.
- Traditionally this term was used to define red wines with a weak colour, but today it is used as a name for very pale rosé wines.
- Common wine
- Used to describe wines that do not belong to a designation of origin.
- Control Board (Consejo Regulador)
- The authority in charge of regulating and normalising the action of agents inscribed in a particular designation of origin, and also responsible...
- A person who makes his own wine from his own harvest. Usually he uses traditional wine-making techniques.
- Process by which the skin of the grapes is broken through crushing and the juice contained within is extracted.
- Abbreviation of “Denominación de Origen”
- Abbreviation of “Denominación de Origen Calificada”.
- Process for separating the grapes from their stalks.
- Denominación de Origen
- Term used in Spain for certain food products with special characteristics and that are similar to each other. It also refers to the geographical...
- Denominación de Origen Calificada
- Term used to describe those Denominaciónes de Origen that have stricter norms and requirements than usual.
- Term that refers to the colour of wines, specifically the intensity of the colour.
- Dry extract
- The residue that remains after evaporation of the wine.
- Fermentation, alcoholic
- Process through which the must undergoes transformation into ethyl alcohol through the effect of yeasts on the sugars it contains.
- Fermentation, barrel
- Fermentation of wine that takes place in casks, preferably made of oak. White wines take on a characteristic smoky aroma through this process.
- Fermentation, malolactic
- Process generated by bacteria that cause the transformation of the wine’s malic acid into lactic acid. Usually the process occurs spontaneously...
- Stage in the vine’s development when the flowers bloom.
- The stage in the vine’s life cycle when the leaves sprout. Also called budding.
- Free running
- Process through which the skin is separated from the must by draining the crushed grapes, so that the liquid falls and the solid residues remain.
- Growth cycle
- Used to define the cycle of evolution and development of the vine during a year of growth.
- Refers to the time of year when the grapes are picked.
- The cultivation task that involves picking the grapes.
- A term used for wines of high alcoholic strength.
- Sediment obtained after fermentation of the wine.
- Procedure that consists in keeping the skins in contact with the must so that the latter takes on greater colour and aroma, which will include...
- Maceration, carbonic
- Phase during the winemaking process when the grapes are fermented without separation from the stalks, i.e. without stalking. The grape skin will...
- Term that refers to the juice obtained from the grapes that is used to make wine.
- Oenological Research Station
- Centres devoted to the study of oenology, with the aim of providing greater knowledge on all aspects of wine and winemaking.
- The part of science reserved for the exclusive study of wine, winemaking and wine ageing.
- This refers to everything relating to the sensorial characteristics of the wine, such as the aroma, taste, body, etc.
- Pearl wine
- A wine whose malolactic fermentation has taken place after bottling.
- A parasite that devours the vine’s roots. After devastating Europe’s vineyards over 100 years ago, vine growers opted for grafting the phylloxera...
- Compounds derived from phenols and found in wine. They are largely responsible for the wine’s aroma, taste and colour.
- The residue obtained after pressing the grapes.
- Process used to extract the must from the bottom of the vat and then pour it into the top part, over the skin cap. The aim is to achieve better...
- Punch down
- A process that consists of submerging the skin cap during fermentation to optimise aroma and colour.
- Part of the winemaking process in which the wine is passed from one cask to another (one or several times) or from one container to another. When...
- A wine obtained from red varieties in which the must is not separated from the skins before fermentation.
- Moment of the wine tasting when the taster expels air through the nose whilst tasting the wine. It is used for better appreciation of certain...
- Moment in which the grape reaches optimum level for picking at the traditional harvest. The exact moment, like the rest of the phases of the growth...
- The bottom of the American vine onto which the European vine is grafted, in order to give vitis vinifera stronger roots.
- A wine obtained from red grape varieties with the difference being that the skins are separated from the must before fermentation.
- Phase in the vine’s life cycle when the formation of the berries begins after fertilisation.
- Setting failure
- This refers to a lack of berries being formed in the corresponding phase of the vine’s development.
- Skin cap
- Solid mass made of the skins that floats on the surface of the must whilst the fermentation process takes place.
- Refers to the skin of the grape.
- Sparkling wine
- These are wines whose alcoholic fermentation has taken place in small containers or in the bottle itself, thus acquiring a considerable amount of gas.
- The tiny branches from which the grapes in a bunch hang.
- Still wine
- Refers to all wine that is not sparkling wine.
- Table wine
- Wine that is suitable for accompanying meals. It does not have to be of low quality or a common wine, as table wines may refer to Reserva wines...
- Procedure for examining a wine’s organoleptic characteristics, which are those that are perceived through the senses (sight, smell and taste).
- Abbreviation of “Vino de Calidad Producido en una Región Determinada”. (Quality Wines Produced in a Specific Region).
- Varietal wine
- Wines obtained from a single grape variety, also known as single varietal wines.
- The stage in the vine’s annual growth cycle when the berries start changing their colour, i.e. to red in the case of red varieties and yellow in...
- Vine grower
- A person whose work focuses on growing vines and tending the vineyard.
- The mastery and art of making wine.
- All the activities involved in making wines.
- The year in which the grapes that made the wine were harvested.
- Trade of the vine grower that includes tending to and cultivating vines.
- Vitis Vinifera
- The vine family species that produces the grapes used to make wine.
- The wine obtained from white grapes characterised by the fact that skins are removed from the must before fermentation.
- Winemaking facility
- Area in the winery reserved for the winemaking process.
- The installations where one or more of the stages of the winemaking process are carried out, i.e. vinification, ageing, bottling, storage, etc. It...