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Glossary

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z

A

Acidity, fixed
A wine’s acidity relative to the sum of fixed organic and mineral acids that are to be found in its composition.
Acidity, total
Refers to the total degree of acidity of a wine, calculated by adding the volatile acidity to the fixed acidity. Acidity is closely related to the...
Acidity, volatile
The concentration of free acids in a wine. If the volatile acidity is high, it has a negative effect on the wine’s quality.
Aftertaste
The flavour and aroma that remains in the mouth after swallowing the wine.
Ageing
Process through which wines are aged and mature, whether in the bottle or in oak casks.
Ageing facility
Place in the winery reserved for ageing wines. The space contains casks and bottle racks where the wine is aged.
Alcohol content
This is the proof of a wine and indicates the percentage of alcohol contained in it. When a wine says 11º it means that it has 11 % alcohol content.
American vine
A variety of wild vine whose rootstock is used for grafting the European vine so that it resists attack by phylloxera.
Anthocyanins
Phenolic pigments found mainly in red grape varieties which determine the colour of the grape.
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B

Bitartrates
Chemically these are potassium bitartrate crystals that form when a glass bottle is kept at low temperatures. A bottle containing bitartrates does...
Bottle rack
Cupboards or structures made of iron, wood or other materials, where bottles of wine are stored for ageing.
Bottling facility
Specific place in the winery where the finished wine is bottled, either for commercialisation or for further bottle ageing.
Bouquet
Refers to aromas that arise from the wine’s ageing process, therefore young wines will never have bouquet.
Budding
Stage in the vine’s life cycle when the leaves sprout. Also called foliation.
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C

Cask
This is a barrel, preferably made of oak, used in the process of ageing wines. The cask usually used is the Bordeaux-type, with a capacity of 225...
Cemetery
The part of the winery where wines from very old vintages are stored. It is usually underground and the space reserved is usually small.
Clarete
Traditionally this term was used to define red wines with a weak colour, but today it is used as a name for very pale rosé wines.
Common wine
Used to describe wines that do not belong to a designation of origin.
Control Board (Consejo Regulador)
The authority in charge of regulating and normalising the action of agents inscribed in a particular designation of origin, and also responsible...
Cosechero
A person who makes his own wine from his own harvest. Usually he uses traditional wine-making techniques.
Crushing
Process by which the skin of the grapes is broken through crushing and the juice contained within is extracted.
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D

D.O.
Abbreviation of “Denominación de Origen”
D.O.C.
Abbreviation of “Denominación de Origen Calificada”.
De-stalking
Process for separating the grapes from their stalks.
Denominación de Origen
Term used in Spain for certain food products with special characteristics and that are similar to each other. It also refers to the geographical...
Denominación de Origen Calificada
Term used to describe those Denominaciónes de Origen that have stricter norms and requirements than usual.
Depth
Term that refers to the colour of wines, specifically the intensity of the colour.
Dry extract
The residue that remains after evaporation of the wine.
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F

Fermentation, alcoholic
Process through which the must undergoes transformation into ethyl alcohol through the effect of yeasts on the sugars it contains.
Fermentation, barrel
Fermentation of wine that takes place in casks, preferably made of oak. White wines take on a characteristic smoky aroma through this process.
Fermentation, malolactic
Process generated by bacteria that cause the transformation of the wine’s malic acid into lactic acid. Usually the process occurs spontaneously...
Flowering
Stage in the vine’s development when the flowers bloom.
Foliation
The stage in the vine’s life cycle when the leaves sprout. Also called budding.
Free running
Process through which the skin is separated from the must by draining the crushed grapes, so that the liquid falls and the solid residues remain.
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G

Growth cycle
Used to define the cycle of evolution and development of the vine during a year of growth.
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H

Harvest
Refers to the time of year when the grapes are picked.
Harvesting
The cultivation task that involves picking the grapes.
Hearty
A term used for wines of high alcoholic strength.
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L

Lees
Sediment obtained after fermentation of the wine.
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M

Maceration
Procedure that consists in keeping the skins in contact with the must so that the latter takes on greater colour and aroma, which will include...
Maceration, carbonic
Phase during the winemaking process when the grapes are fermented without separation from the stalks, i.e. without stalking. The grape skin will...
Must
Term that refers to the juice obtained from the grapes that is used to make wine.
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O

Oenological Research Station
Centres devoted to the study of oenology, with the aim of providing greater knowledge on all aspects of wine and winemaking.
Oenology
The part of science reserved for the exclusive study of wine, winemaking and wine ageing.
Organoleptic
This refers to everything relating to the sensorial characteristics of the wine, such as the aroma, taste, body, etc.
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P

Pearl wine
A wine whose malolactic fermentation has taken place after bottling.
Phylloxera
A parasite that devours the vine’s roots. After devastating Europe’s vineyards over 100 years ago, vine growers opted for grafting the phylloxera...
Polyphenols
Compounds derived from phenols and found in wine. They are largely responsible for the wine’s aroma, taste and colour.
Pomace
The residue obtained after pressing the grapes.
Pump-over
Process used to extract the must from the bottom of the vat and then pour it into the top part, over the skin cap. The aim is to achieve better...
Punch down
A process that consists of submerging the skin cap during fermentation to optimise aroma and colour.
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R

Racking
Part of the winemaking process in which the wine is passed from one cask to another (one or several times) or from one container to another. When...
Red
A wine obtained from red varieties in which the must is not separated from the skins before fermentation.
Retro-olfaction
Moment of the wine tasting when the taster expels air through the nose whilst tasting the wine. It is used for better appreciation of certain...
Ripening
Moment in which the grape reaches optimum level for picking at the traditional harvest. The exact moment, like the rest of the phases of the growth...
Rootstock
The bottom of the American vine onto which the European vine is grafted, in order to give vitis vinifera stronger roots.
Rosé
A wine obtained from red grape varieties with the difference being that the skins are separated from the must before fermentation.
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S

Setting
Phase in the vine’s life cycle when the formation of the berries begins after fertilisation.
Setting failure
This refers to a lack of berries being formed in the corresponding phase of the vine’s development.
Skin cap
Solid mass made of the skins that floats on the surface of the must whilst the fermentation process takes place.
Skins
Refers to the skin of the grape.
Sparkling wine
These are wines whose alcoholic fermentation has taken place in small containers or in the bottle itself, thus acquiring a considerable amount of gas.
Stalks
The tiny branches from which the grapes in a bunch hang.
Still wine
Refers to all wine that is not sparkling wine.
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T

Table wine
Wine that is suitable for accompanying meals. It does not have to be of low quality or a common wine, as table wines may refer to Reserva wines...
Tasting
Procedure for examining a wine’s organoleptic characteristics, which are those that are perceived through the senses (sight, smell and taste).
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V

V.C.P.R.D.
Abbreviation of “Vino de Calidad Producido en una Región Determinada”. (Quality Wines Produced in a Specific Region).
Varietal wine
Wines obtained from a single grape variety, also known as single varietal wines.
Veraison
The stage in the vine’s annual growth cycle when the berries start changing their colour, i.e. to red in the case of red varieties and yellow in...
Vine grower
A person whose work focuses on growing vines and tending the vineyard.
Viniculture
The mastery and art of making wine.
Vinification
All the activities involved in making wines.
Vintage
The year in which the grapes that made the wine were harvested.
Viticulture
Trade of the vine grower that includes tending to and cultivating vines.
Vitis Vinifera
The vine family species that produces the grapes used to make wine.
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W

White
The wine obtained from white grapes characterised by the fact that skins are removed from the must before fermentation.
Winemaking facility
Area in the winery reserved for the winemaking process.
Winery
The installations where one or more of the stages of the winemaking process are carried out, i.e. vinification, ageing, bottling, storage, etc. It...
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